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Мышление и речь

Nsciousness arguing that speech is social in its origins and that only as children develop does it become internalized verbal thoughtNow Alex Kozulin has created a new edition of the original MIT Press translation by Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar that rest. Vygotsky understands language and thought as modes of accessing reality They differ from perception with respect to their presenting reality in a generalized manner perception instead presents reality in its particularities Vygotsky challenges the basic underlying assumptions about the nature of language and thought held by virtually all psychologists of his day His critiues are not only rigorous and compelling Even his positive proposals in place of these old assumptions are stunning and have born out to be truthful Developmental psychologists have taken on his insights and proven them to be explanatorily powerful Here s a summary of some of his main ideas Previous thinkers either assumed that language and thought totally independent capacities having no influence on one another Or they assumed that the two are merely identical with one another Vygotsky s thesis opposes both extreme assumptions instead one s capacities to speak and to think are interdependent each shaping the possible expressions of the other capacity Piaget the most influential of Vygotsky s predecessors was spot on in aiming to understand the development of linguistic thought by examining its ontogenetic stages But his main failing is his view that human infants start off as solipsistic individuals and so language use progresses in the direction from egocentric driven usages to socially driven and adapted usages Piaget believed that infants are capable of only autistic thinking which in his time meant thought that is not adapted to reality that is it is hallucinatory and illusory thought that is not responsive to real environmental conditions and that does not adapt in accordance to feedback given by the environment This is largely influenced by Freud Against this Vygtosky argues that such autistic or imaginative thinking is a relatively late development Infants are born in attunement with their environments it is evolutionarily critical to be so to be constantly responsive and sensitive to real events Only later can children learn to recombine concepts learned from real experience in imaginative ways and language is critical for enabling this activity Moreover language is essentially communicative from the start rather than private and egocentric We first learn language in dialogue with other people and only later on discover ways to use speech when they are not physically present For example Piaget identified egocentric speech the expression of autistic thinking is not actually solipsistic Vygotsky s empirical work showed that children talk to themselves precisely when they face challenges and need guidance They use words to tell themselves instructions and engage in dialogue with themselves This is with the aim to enable greater focus on the tasks that are needed to overcome challenges Older children are able to internalize this speech or to think linguistic thoughts rather than utter them overtlyThe development of one s conceptual repertoire is closely tied to the development of speech The meaning of words are conceptual in nature Vygotsky examines the development of concepts in chapters 5 and 6 Vygotsky distinguishes between scientific and spontaneous concepts The former are concepts that must be explicitly taught to us in order to be learned whereas the latter are concepts that we naturally form as we experience the world Each kind of concept acuisition enhances and enables the developmental trajectory of the other When we learn scientific concepts these provide sophisticated structures eg the ways concepts of this kind can formally relate to each other such as standing in a hierarchy of generality to particularity which we can apply to our spontaneous concepts thereby ordering and renewing them Scientific concepts can only be learned on the basis of our current conceptual repertoire which for children largely consists in spontaneous concepts The famous term in developmental psychology scaffolding is based in these accounts The core of Vygotsky s theory found in the last chapter 7 is that the developmental tracks that mark the progression of thought and language are distinguishable but deeply interrelated Overt speech advances from parts to whole ie a few words to sophisticated sentences while thought advances from whole to parts ie a nebulous overall thought to nuanced articulated thoughts Language and speech move in opposite directions in this sense but are unified When a thought is immature and nebulous it can be expressed in a single world As a thought becomes differentiated it can be expressed in sophisticated sentences Overt speech can serve as a tool that enables one to create greater nuances in one s thoughts and with nuanced thought one is capable of sophisticated speech Thought must undergo ontological changes in order to become mature speech and so thought and speech are not identical versions of one another simply laying in different media as some previous thinkers assumed Vygotsky also explores how young children don t distinguish between the referent and the meaning of words at the beginning of language development That is a child in uttering a word and apprehending its meaning conflates this meaning with the real object in the world to which the word refers I am fascinated by this finding I wonder whether this infantile tendency is still latent in adult behavior where most of us find us compelled at times to make prayers or wishes Such practices presuppose that the meaning that unfolds in language use can causally interact with objects in the world itself if not even being identical to those objects When we engage in wishful thinking it is as if the desired new arrangements of objects that we configure in our language now are real manifested in the world itself Vygotsky has fascinating insights about the process by which the capacities for overt verbalized speech can be internalized or transformed for the generation of inner speech or linguistic thoughts He starts of with the principle that the familiar with one another two conversational partners are and the greater the shared background knowledge or context is between them the abbreviated their speech can be Between two best friends one can just utter Yeah with a particular intonation and the net semantic meaning of this utterance can be euivalent to that of many sophisticated sentences Vygotsky points out that in engaging in inner speech we essentially speak to ourselves When we relate to ourselves the dynamic this affords is loosely similar to that which emerges between two conversational partners Vygotsky does not state this explicitly this is my interpretation on what his premises must be We know ourselves uite well or we literally are ourselves This makes for the highest degree of shared background knowledge and context between the conversational partners that are our self conscious and our implicit selves So this enables the most extreme extent of abbreviation in speech When we think linguistic thoughts we don t have to use much explicit wording in order to express very complicated thoughts which could take long discourses to express if we were speaking to a literal other person Vygotsky also explores a point that is shared with late Wittgenstein He points out that the meaning of a word can consist in meanings originally based in words usually associated with that word or in the overall discourse or context in which that word appears For example the meaning of The Brothers Karamozov can consist in the vast stretches of meanings that make up this epic novel as a whole We can apprehend all of this vast meaning in a nebulous way at one fell swoop Overall this book is rich is insights and ideas about basic processes in psychological development It is a fascinating read My only complaint is that many ideas presented in the body chapters of the book do not seem connected to the core of Vygotsky s theory presented only in the last chapter So the book feels somewhat disjointed The heart of Vygotsky s critiue of previous thinkers is found in chapter 1 Chapters 2 3 involve elaboration on Vygotsky s critiue of his major predecessors Chapters 4 6 involve Vygotsky s argument for the importance of a geneticdevelopmental account of language and findings from his empirical research this culminates into the principles of his theory which is laid out in chapter 7 I d say the first and last chapters are the most interesting and important and the rest of the book could be skimmedI d recommend this book to anyone interested in naturalistic approaches to understanding semantic meaning or language

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Ores the work's complete text and adds materials that will help readers better understand Vygotsky's meaning and intentions Kozulin has also contributed an introductory essay that offers new insight into the author's life intellectual milieu and research methods. While Vygotsky s thoughts about language and thought are incredible contributions to the fields of psychology and education it feels like he glories in the disproving of other theorists particularly Piaget It seems that Vygotsky took nearly 300 pages to say what might have been expressed in around 100

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Since it was introduced to the English speaking world in 1962 Lev Vygotsky's highly original exploration of human mental development has become recognized as a classic foundational work of cognitive science Vygotsky analyzes the relationship between words and co. A classic of its own kind Reading Vygotsky elaborating on Piaget and Freud and the theory of learning and language is a treat but not easy or uick It immediately puts the teacher in the zone of proximal development After all the topic is mindbogglingly complex how does thought relate to language and how do children develop their critical thinking skills How do children move from egocentric speech in early infancy over mastering syntax to mastering the inner reflective voice of logicVygotsky seems to have gained relevance now than he ever had during his lifetime a century ago His idea that the environment of learning shapes the human mind and influences the learner s path towards complex thinking skills is the basis of almost all classroom management guidelines in the 21st centuryMake sure you create an environment that is stimulating the child to pick up new impulses and lead the student towards the zone of proximal development that fragile zone in which a learner is just so much outside his or her comfort zone that learning can take place If you stay inside your comfort zone the learning outcome is zero as you know everything that is taught already and if you move to topics and concepts that are far too complicated for your level of understanding you will be eually lost and the outcome will again be zero ZPD the art of balancing educationTo a tired teacher on vacation Vygotsky is one thing above all else a reassuring voice in the darkness whispering Teaching does matter


10 thoughts on “Мышление и речь

  1. says:

    A classic of its own kind Reading Vygotsky elaborating on Piaget and Freud and the theory of learning and language is a treat but not

  2. says:

    At a conference I attended recently someone asked a rhetorical uestion – where is the next education theory that will replace Dewey or Vygotsky? I wonder how many people outside of education know that these two utterly dominate education theory? And amusingly enough the person most people know about as a child and educational psychologist Piaget didn’t even rate a mentionThought and Language is regarded as Vygotsky’s most important

  3. says:

    Vygotsky is to Piaget as Wittgenstein is to St AugustinePuzzle over that one why don't you?What is taken for granted in any system of thought is often the thing most in need of explanation Piaget talked about the developme

  4. says:

    This was one of the first books I read about linguistics Little did I know when I first started reading it Thought and Language was to start a life long passion for the subject When I was teaching young children every day

  5. says:

    I could tell you that I am done reading this but as an education student I will never be done reading this This is a foundational text and deserves to be so

  6. says:

    Vygotsky understands language and thought as modes of accessing reality They differ from perception with respect to their presenting reality in a generalized manner; perception instead presents reality in its particularities Vygotsky challenges the basic underlying assumptions about the nature of language and thought held by virtually all psychologists of his day His critiues are not only rigorous and compelli

  7. says:

    Dense Hard to read But the theory behind it seems good I'll definitely have to re read after I learn about psychology

  8. says:

    I came back to this after attempting it over a decade earlier and though it's still a bit of a challenge it's well worth it Vygotsky's perspective is truly distinct even in his era and area the Soviet Union in the 20's and 30's and the approach he developed clearly demonstrates the influence of a particularly Soviet socialist approach to psyc

  9. says:

    While Vygotsky’s thoughts about language and thought are incredible contributions to the fields of psychology and education it fe

  10. says:

    This is up there as one of those must read early childhood education books I'm not going to get into it here other just say do yourself a favour It's not long and bulky it's short and sharp If you take early childhood educ

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